»Consul vs. Nagios, Sensu
Nagios and Sensu are both tools built for monitoring. They are used to quickly notify operators when an issue occurs.
Nagios uses a group of central servers that are configured to perform checks on remote hosts. This design makes it difficult to scale Nagios, as large fleets quickly reach the limit of vertical scaling, and Nagios does not easily scale horizontally. Nagios is also notoriously difficult to use with modern DevOps and configuration management tools, as local configurations must be updated when remote servers are added or removed.
Sensu has a much more modern design, relying on local agents to run checks and pushing results to an AMQP broker. A number of servers ingest and handle the result of the health checks from the broker. This model is more scalable than Nagios, as it allows for much more horizontal scaling and a weaker coupling between the servers and agents. However, the central broker has scaling limits and acts as a single point of failure in the system.
Consul provides the same health checking abilities as both Nagios and Sensu, is friendly to modern DevOps, and avoids the scaling issues inherent in the other systems. Consul runs all checks locally, like Sensu, avoiding placing a burden on central servers. The status of checks is maintained by the Consul servers, which are fault tolerant and have no single point of failure. Lastly, Consul can scale to vastly more checks because it relies on edge-triggered updates. This means that an update is only triggered when a check transitions from "passing" to "failing" or vice versa.
In a large fleet, the majority of checks are passing, and even the minority that are failing are persistent. By capturing changes only, Consul reduces the amount of networking and compute resources used by the health checks, allowing the system to be much more scalable.
An astute reader may notice that if a Consul agent dies, then no edge triggered updates will occur. From the perspective of other nodes, all checks will appear to be in a steady state. However, Consul guards against this as well. The gossip protocol used between clients and servers integrates a distributed failure detector. This means that if a Consul agent fails, the failure will be detected, and thus all checks being run by that node can be assumed failed. This failure detector distributes the work among the entire cluster while, most importantly, enabling the edge triggered architecture to work.