»Prerequisites Needed to Run Consul-Terraform-Sync

Consul-Terraform-Sync requires a Terraform Provider, a Terraform Module, and a running Consul cluster outside of the consul-terraform-sync daemon. Practitioners can add support for their network infrastructure through Terraform providers. Once network infrastructure support exists, practitioners can add network integrations in the form of Terraform modules.

»Run a Consul Cluster

Below are several steps towards a minimum Consul setup required for running Consul-Terraform-Sync.

»Install Consul

Consul-Terraform-Sync is a daemon that runs alongside Consul, similar to other Consul ecosystem tools like Consul Template. Consul-Terraform-Sync is not included with the Consul binary and needs to be installed separately.

To install a local Consul agent, refer to the Getting Started: Install Consul Tutorial.

»Run an Agent

The Consul agent must be running in order to dynamically update network devices. To run the local Consul agent, you can run Consul in development mode which can be started with consul agent -dev for simplicity. For more details on running Consul agent, refer to the Getting Started: Run the Consul Agent Tutorial.

When running a Consul agent with Consul-Terraform-Sync in production, we suggest to keep a few considerations in mind. Consul-Terraform-Sync uses blocking queries to monitor task dependencies, like changes to registered services. This results in multiple long running TCP connections between Consul-Terraform-Sync and the agent to poll changes for each dependency. Monitoring a high number of services may quickly hit the default Consul agent connection limits. Configure limits.http_max_conns_per_client for the agent to a reasonable value proportional to the number of services monitored by Consul-Terraform-Sync.

»Register Services

Consul-Terraform-Sync monitors Consul catalog for service changes which lead to downstream changes to your network devices. Without services, your Consul-Terraform-Sync daemon will be operational but idle. You can register services with your Consul agent either by loading a service definition or by HTTP API request.

If you are running Consul in development mode, below is an example of registering a service by HTTP API request:

$ echo '{
    "ID": "web",
    "Name": "web",
    "Address": "",
    "Port": 8000
}' > payload.json

$ curl --request PUT --data @payload.json http://localhost:8500/v1/agent/service/register

The above example registers a service named "web" with your Consul agent. This represents a non-existent web service running at Your web service is now available for Consul-Terraform-Sync to consume. In Consul-Terraform-Sync, you can optionally configure the web service with a service block if it has any non-default values. You can also have Consul-Terraform-Sync monitor the web service to execute a task and update network device(s) by configuring "web" in task.services of a task block.

For more details on registering a service by HTTP API request, refer to the register service API docs.

For more details on registering a service by loading a service definition, refer to the Getting Started: Register a Service with Consul Service Discovery Tutorial.

»Run a Cluster

The previous steps of installing and running a single Consul agent then registering a single service is sufficient to meaningfully start running Consul-Terraform-Sync.

If you would like to run a Consul cluster rather than a single agent, refer to Getting Started: Create a Local Consul Datacenter. This will walk you through the steps of running multiple Consul agents and then joining them together into a cluster.

»Network Infrastructure (using a Terraform Provider)

Consul-Terraform-Sync integrations for the Terraform driver utilizes Terraform providers as plugins to interface with specific network infrastructure platforms. The Terraform driver of Consul-Terraform-Sync inherits the expansive collection of Terraform providers to integrate with, and with release of Terraform 0.13, this extends to include providers written by the community too by using provider source.

»Finding and Using Terraform Providers

To find providers for the infrastructure platforms you use, browse the providers section of the Terraform Registry.

»How to Create a Provider

If there is no existing Terraform provider, a new Terraform provider can be created and published. The provider can then be used within a network integration task by authoring a compatible Terraform module.

»Network Integration (using a Terraform Module)

Working with a Terraform provider, you can write an integration task for Consul-Terraform-Sync by creating a Terraform module that is compatible with the Terraform driver.

»Using Terraform Modules

The modules listed below are availabe to use and are compatible with Consul-Terraform-Sync.

»A10 Networks


»Cisco ACI


»Palo Alto Networks

»How to Create a Compatible Terraform Module

You can read more on how to create a module or work through a tutorial to build a module. Consul-Terraform-Sync is designed to integrate with any module that satisfies the specifications in the following section.

»Module Specifications

Compatible modules for Consul-Terraform-Sync follow the standard module structure. Modules can use syntax supported by Terraform version 0.13 and newer. There are 2 required elements for compatibility:

  1. Root module - Terraform has one requirement for files in the root directory of the repository to function as the primary entrypoint for the module. It should encapsulate the core logic to be used by Consul-Terraform-Sync for task automation. main.tf is the recommended filename for the main file where resources are created.
  2. services input variable - Consul-Terraform-Sync requires all modules to have the following input variable declared within the root module. The declaration of the services variable can be included at the top of the suggested variables.tf file where other input variables are commonly declared. This variable functions as the response object from the Consul catalog API and surfaces network information to be consumed by the module. It is structured as a map of objects.
variable "services" {
  description = "Consul services monitored by Consul-Terraform-Sync"
  type = map(
      id        = string
      name      = string
      address   = string
      port      = number
      meta      = map(string)
      tags      = list(string)
      namespace = string
      status    = string

      node                  = string
      node_id               = string
      node_address          = string
      node_datacenter       = string
      node_tagged_addresses = map(string)
      node_meta             = map(string)

Keys of the services map are unique identifiers of the service across Consul agents and data centers. Keys follow the format service-id.node.datacenter (or service-id.node.namespace.datacenter for Consul Enterprise). A complete list of attributes available for the services variable is included in the documentation for Consul-Terraform-Sync tasks.

Terraform variables when passed as module arguments can be lossy for object types. This allows Consul-Terraform-Sync to declare the full variable with every object attribute in the generated root module, and pass the variable to a child module that contains a subset of these attributes for its variable declaration. Modules compatible with Consul-Terraform-Sync may simplify the services variable within the module by omitting unused attributes. For example, the following services variable has 4 attributes with the rest omitted.

variable "services" {
  description = "Consul services monitored by Consul-Terraform-Sync"
  type = map(
      id           = string
      name         = string
      node_address = string
      port         = number
      status       = string

»Module Input Variables

Network infrastructure differs vastly across teams and organizations, and the automation needs of practitioners are unique based on their existing setup. Input variables can be used to serve as customization parameters to the module for practitioners.

  1. Identify areas in the module where practitioners could tailor the automation to fit their infrastructure.
  2. Declare input variables and insert the use of variables throughout module resources to expose these options to practitioners.
  3. Include descriptions to capture what the variables are and how they are used, and specify custom validation rules for variables to provide context to users the expected format and conditions for the variables.
  4. Set reasonable default values for variables that are optional, and omit default values for variables that are required module arguments.

Terraform is an explicit configuration language and requires variables to be declared, typed, and passed explicitly through as module arguments. Consul-Terraform-Sync abstracts this by creating intermediate variables at the root level from values intended for the module. These values are configured by practitioners within the task block. Value assignments are parsed to interpolate the corresponding variable declaration and are written to the appropriate Terraform files. A few assumptions are made for the intermediate variables: the variables users provide Consul-Terraform-Sync are declared and supported by the module, matching name and type.

»Module Guidelines

This section covers guidelines for authoring compatible Consul-Terraform-Sync modules.


We recommend scoping the module to a few related resources for a provider. Small modules are easier and more flexible for end users to adopt for Consul-Terraform-Sync. It allows them to iteratively combine different modules and use them as building blocks to meet their unique network infrastructure needs.


Consider authoring modules with low complexity to reduce the run time for Terraform execution. Complex modules that have a large number of dependencies may result in longer runs, which adds delay to the near real time network updates.


Provider configurations belong in the root module of a Terraform configuration and should not be included within the authored module for network integrations. End users will configure the providers through Consul-Terraform-Sync, and Consul-Terraform-Sync will then translate provider configuration to the generated root module appropriately.


Modules for Consul-Terraform-Sync are Terraform modules and can effectively run independently from the consul-terraform-sync daemon and Consul environment. They should be written and designed with Terraform best practices and should be clear to a Terraform user what the module does and how to use it. Module documentation should be named README or README.md. The description should capture what the module should be used for and the implications of running it in automation with Consul-Terraform-Sync.