» Consul DNS on Kubernetes

One of the primary query interfaces to Consul is the DNS interface. You can configure Consul DNS in Kubernetes using a stub-domain configuration if using KubeDNS or a proxy configuration if using CoreDNS.

Once configured, DNS requests in the form <consul-service-name>.service.consul will resolve for services in Consul. This will work from all Kubernetes namespaces.

» Consul DNS Cluster IP

To configure KubeDNS or CoreDNS you'll first need the ClusterIP of the Consul DNS service created by the Helm chart.

The default name of the Consul DNS service will be consul-consul-dns. Use that name to get the ClusterIP:

$ kubectl get svc consul-consul-dns -o jsonpath='{.spec.clusterIP}'
10.35.240.78%

For this installation the ClusterIP is 10.35.240.78.

» KubeDNS

If using KubeDNS, you need to create a ConfigMap that tells KubeDNS to use the Consul DNS service to resolve all domains ending with .consul:

Export the Consul DNS IP as an environment variable:

export CONSUL_DNS_IP=10.35.240.78

And create the ConfigMap:

$ cat <<EOF | kubectl apply -f -
apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  labels:
    addonmanager.kubernetes.io/mode: EnsureExists
  name: kube-dns
  namespace: kube-system
data:
  stubDomains: |
    {"consul": ["$CONSUL_DNS_IP"]}
EOF
Warning: kubectl apply should be used on resource created by either kubectl create --save-config or kubectl apply
configmap/kube-dns configured

Ensure that the ConfigMap was created successfully:

$ kubectl get configmap kube-dns -n kube-system -o yaml
apiVersion: v1
data:
  stubDomains: |
    {"consul": ["10.35.240.78"]}
kind: ConfigMap
...

Now skip ahead to the Verifying DNS Works section.

» CoreDNS Configuration

If using CoreDNS instead of KubeDNS in your Kubernetes cluster, you will need to update your existing coredns ConfigMap in the kube-system namespace to include a forward definition for consul that points to the cluster IP of the Consul DNS service.

Edit the ConfigMap:

$ kubectl edit configmap coredns -n kube-system

And add the consul block below the default .:53 block and replace <consul-dns-service-cluster-ip> with the DNS Service's IP address you found previously.

apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  labels:
    addonmanager.kubernetes.io/mode: EnsureExists
  name: coredns
  namespace: kube-system
data:
  Corefile: |
    .:53 {
        <Existing CoreDNS definition>
    }
+   consul {
+     errors
+     cache 30
+     forward . <consul-dns-service-cluster-ip>
+   }

» Verifying DNS Works

To verify DNS works, run a simple job to query DNS. Save the following job to the file job.yaml and run it:

apiVersion: batch/v1
kind: Job
metadata:
  name: dns
spec:
  template:
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: dns
        image: anubhavmishra/tiny-tools
        command: ["dig",  "consul.service.consul"]
      restartPolicy: Never
  backoffLimit: 4
$ kubectl apply -f job.yaml

Then query the pod name for the job and check the logs. You should see output similar to the following showing a successful DNS query. If you see any errors, then DNS is not configured properly.

$ kubectl get pods --show-all | grep dns
dns-lkgzl         0/1       Completed   0          6m

$ kubectl logs dns-lkgzl
; <<>> DiG 9.11.2-P1 <<>> consul.service.consul
;; global options: +cmd
;; Got answer:
;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 4489
;; flags: qr aa rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 3, AUTHORITY: 0, ADDITIONAL: 4

;; OPT PSEUDOSECTION:
; EDNS: version: 0, flags:; udp: 4096
;; QUESTION SECTION:
;consul.service.consul.     IN  A

;; ANSWER SECTION:
consul.service.consul.  0   IN  A   10.36.2.23
consul.service.consul.  0   IN  A   10.36.4.12
consul.service.consul.  0   IN  A   10.36.0.11

;; ADDITIONAL SECTION:
consul.service.consul.  0   IN  TXT "consul-network-segment="
consul.service.consul.  0   IN  TXT "consul-network-segment="
consul.service.consul.  0   IN  TXT "consul-network-segment="

;; Query time: 5 msec
;; SERVER: 10.39.240.10#53(10.39.240.10)
;; WHEN: Wed Sep 12 02:12:30 UTC 2018
;; MSG SIZE  rcvd: 206